Learn about Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) and its dietary measurement
Understanding Society, also known as The UK Household Longitudinal study (UKHLS), is a panel study of approximately 40,000 households in the UK which began in 2009 . All members of the household aged 16 years and over complete a survey on a yearly basis. Interviews are via an online questionnaire or by a face-to-face or telephone interview. Each wave takes place over a 24-month period . Members of the household who are aged 10-15 years are asked to complete a short self-completion youth questionnaire until they reach 16 years. UKHLS has a complex sample design which has been outlined in detail in a previous report . Briefly, the overall survey consists of: a general population sample, members of the British Household Panel Survey (which ran from 1991/92 to 2008/09 (from Wave 2)), and an immigrant and ethnic minority boost sample from Wave 6 onwards.
The overall aim of UKHLS is to provide longitudinal data to describe the health, work, and education, economic, social and family life of the UK population and provide a platform to understand social and economic change and policy interventions.
While there were no FFQs or diet diaries collected, there are a number of diet-related questions (see the table below). From Wave 7, some of these questions were based on the Eating Choice Index which has been shown in NSHD to discriminate unhealthy and healthy eating .
In addition to the questions in the below, mothers answered information about their child’s breastfeeding including age when breastfeeding was stopped.
|BHPS†||W1||W2||W3||W4||W5||W6||W7||W8||W9||W10||W11||W4 COVID-19||W7 COVID-19|
|Data deposit||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017||2018||2019||2020||2021||July 2020||January 2021|
|Questionnaire source||Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire||Questionnaire / Youth questionnaire||Questionnaire||Questionnaire|
|Eat meat, chicken, fish every second day (yes/no) ‡||hscane||hhresp||✔|
|Does the child eat fruit and/or vegetables every day (yes/no) ‡||cdepdo5||hhresp||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Frequency of eating out§||lacte||indresp||✔|
|Frequency of fruit (frozen, dried and fresh) |||wkfruit||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Frequency of vegetables (tinned, frozen, dried and fresh, not potatoes) |||wkvege||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|On days you eat it, number of portions of fresh fruit and vegetables per day||fruvege||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|On days you eat it, number of portions of fruit||fruitamt||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|On days you eat it, number of portions of vegetables||vegeamt||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Type of milk used¶||usdairy||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Type of bread used**||usbread||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Number of days breakfast consumed||breakfst||indresp||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from where born††||food1||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from mother's country of birth††||food2||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from father's country of birth††||food3||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from maternal grandmother's country of birth††||food4||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from maternal grandfather’s country of birth††||food5||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from paternal grandmother's country of birth††||food6||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Eats food from paternal grandfather’s country of birth††||food7||indresp||✔||✔||✔|
|Frequency of fresh fruit or vegetables‡‡||ypfrut||youth||✔||✔|
|Number of portions of fresh fruit and vegetables per day§§||ypfrutppd||youth||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Frequency of fast food‡‡||ypffd||youth||✔||✔|
|Frequency of breakfast‡‡||ypffdwk||youth||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
|Frequency of crisps, sweets or fizzy drinks‡‡||ypjfd||youth||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔||✔|
Questionnaire links are provided to CLOSER Discovery (interactive version) or original study PDF as applicable.
* hhresp: household level; indresp: individual level; All index terms are searchable at: https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/documentation/mainstage/dataset-documentation.
† Not all waves of BHPS asked these questions; see questionnaires for details: https://www.understandingsociety.ac.uk/documentation/mainstage/questionnaires.
‡ These questions were designed to assess derivation rather than diet.
§ At least once a week/at least once a month/several times a year/once a year or less/never or almost never.
| Never/1-3 days/4-6 days/every day.
¶ Whole/semi-skimmed/skimmed/soya/any other/ don’t use milk.
** White/wholemeal/Granary or wholegrain/both brown and white/don’t eat bread /other type of bread.
†† Every day/3-6 days a week/ 1-2 days a week/a least monthly/at least every 6 months/rarely or never/special occasion.
‡‡ Every day or nearly/about once a week/every now and then/ never or hardly ever.
§§ 5 or more/3-4 portions/1-2 portions/none.
The dietary data in UKHLS have not been used extensively.
The relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and well-being
A paper using dietary data and mental wellbeing scores provides further evidence that persuading people to consume more fruits and vegetables may not only benefit their physical health in the long-run, but also their mental well-being in the short-run .
Consumption of ethnic food
An Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) working paper from 2014 found that the maintenance of an ethnic origin diet was associated with healthier eating patterns .
Diets of young people
Out of two papers examining diet in the youth sample, one found that the majority of them did not eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day and being a boy in lower income households and of Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnicity (compared with white ethnicity) were associated with lower odds of meeting dietary recommendations . Higher fruit and vegetable intakes was associated with higher odds of happiness and lower odds of socio-emotional difficulties and consumption of fast food .
Learn about the other studies covered by this guide and their dietary measurements:
- Overview of dietary information in selected CLOSER studies
- Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS)
- 1946 National Survey for Health and Development (NSHD)
- 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS)
- 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)
- The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)
- Southampton Women’s Survey (SWS)
- Millennium Cohort Study (MCS)
Get background detail on this guide:
- Objective and outline of this guide
- Dietary research in context
- Dietary assessment tools (DATs)
- Estimating nutrient intakes from DATs
Learn about harmonisation in the context of dietary data:
- Acknowledgements and copyright information for this guide
- References for this guide
- Download the full guide as a PDF
This page is part of the CLOSER resource: ‘A guide to the dietary data in eight CLOSER studies’.