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ALSPAC – Age 12.5 – Tests Of Reading Efficiency/Fluency (TOWRE)

The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) assessed their cohort members (CMs) during the study’s age 12.5 sweep (TeenFocus 1) using Tests Of Reading Efficiency/Fluency (TOWRE).

Details on this measure and the data collected from the CMs are outlined in the table below.

Domain:Reading ability
Measures:Verbal expression
Lexical knowledge
Sight word efficiency
Decoding efficiency
Reading speed
CHC:Crystallised Intelligence (Gc)
Grw (Reading/Writing)
Administration method:Trained interviewer; clinical setting; oral answers
Procedure:The child was presented with two lists, one consisting of real words (e.g. she, strong, crowd) and the other nonwords (e.g. ip, nup, poth). The child was asked to read the words aloud as quickly as possible (max time limit of 45 seconds per list).
Link to questionnaire: (opens in new tab)
Scoring:Score based on number of correct words within timeframe.
Item-level variable(s):Not readily available.
Total score/derived variable(s):ff2430 - ff2525
Descriptives:Real words reachedNon-words reached
N = 2,084N = 2,081
Range = 19 - 104Range = 2 - 63
Mean = 77.38Mean = 49.07
SD = 10.60SD = 9.63
(click image to enlarge)
(click image to enlarge)
Age of participants:Mean (months) = 153.73, SD = 2.77, Range = 136 - 171
Other sweep and/or cohort:ALSPAC – Age 13 – Tests Of Reading Efficiency/Fluency (TOWRE)
Source:Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Wagner, R. K. (1999). TOWRE: Test of word reading efficiency. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
Technical resources:None
Reference examples:Bryant, P., Nunes, T., & Barros, R. (2014). The connection between children's knowledge and use of grapho?phonic and morphemic units in written text and their learning at school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 211-225.
Davis, O. S., Band, G., Pirinen, M., Haworth, C. M., Meaburn, E. L., Kovas, Y., ... & Curtis, C. J. (2014). The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component. Nature Communications, 5, 4204.

For the named items in the table above, links are provided to their corresponding content on CLOSER Discovery. Where a variable range is provided, full variable lists can be accessed through the ‘Variable Groups’ tab on the linked Discovery page.

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This page is part of CLOSER’s ‘A guide to the cognitive measures in five British birth cohort studies’.